Overview of Native Americans, Coronado’s journey through the area, Hispanic sheep herders, Mormons, outlaws, Butch Cassidy and a setup for the Gibbons-LeSueur murders that shocked the state and created sentiment for the creation of the Arizona Rangers.
Arizona on the Equator
East-central Arizona 280 million years ago on the coast of a giant land mass that included all seven continents. Migration to its current location. The Petrified Forest as a window into dinosaurs and other life 200 million years ago. The formation of the Mogollon Rim. Volcanoes create the White Mountains. Glaciers. How the natural environment produces the climate, including the monsoons. Plants and animals.
Humans Arrive: From Africa to Arizona
Modern humans leave Africa and make a 15,000-year journey to America. What Y-chromosome and mitochondria DNA, and linguistics, tell us about the routes of Zunis, Hopis, Apaches and Navajos to Arizona. Early hunter-gatherers in the area.
Emergence of the Pueblo Cultures
People from the Desert Culture move from pit houses to pueblos while expanding agriculture. Trouble with irrigation. Religious practices. Casa Malapais. From basketmakers to pottery. White Mountain Pueblos. Weapons. Religion.
The Collapse: Where Did They Go?
Ancient cultures disappear. Asking the wrong question. Studies at Grasshopper.
Hopis Pack Up and Move North
Hopi traditions of living in Show Low and Springerville. Scientists find “missing link” for tree ring dating in Show Low. The “Vernon Image,” a stone deity from the Red Cloud House marks one corner of the Hopi world. Hopi legends of the White Mountain clans.
The Ancestral Home of the Zuni Mudheads
Zuni traditions of living in the White Mountains. The home of the mud heads. The site of “Zuni Heaven” in the White Mountains. Shrines. The mystery of the Zuni language.
Kachina Religion Emerges in Little Colorado Area
New religion appears in the designs on White Mountain Four Mile pottery. Spreads through Pueblo people to the north. Parrots imported from the south.
Apaches Thrive in the High Country
Nomadic hunter-gatherers. Farming. Variety of houses. Domestic animals. Clans structure and marriage practices. Religion and ceremonies. Lifeways. Material culture.
Coronado Finds White Mountains Desolate
Cabeza de Vaca and his men survive, tell the story. Marcos de Niza and Steven visit. Coronado’s march through the area. The camp of death. Fights with Zunis.
The Three Hundred Years War
Spanish take Indian slaves. Pueblos join Apaches. Pueblo opposition to Spanish. Apaches continue to attack. Spanish advance into Arizona halted. Conflicts with Pimas. Spanish withdraw. War of extermination. U.S. emerges on Continent. Spanish policies of peace and treachery.
Americans Arrive in Arizona
Fur traders, the first illegal immigrants. Storytelling. Expeditions of James Ohio Pattie. Kit Carson and Ewing Young. Fights with Apaches.
U.S. Takes Possession
Mexican War. Misconceptions about Arizona. Early conflicts with Apaches. Prospecting for gold. First peace treaty. Francix X. Aubry, explorer and storyteller.
Apaches Resist Americans
Fantastic nonsense in the East. Early interaction between Apaches and Americans. Treaties and conflict.
Looking for Ways Across Arizona
Sitgreaves visits area. Whipple looks for wagon road. Beale brings camels and gets criticism.
Apaches Raid Mexico
Some Apaches raid into Mexico. White Mountain Apaches at peace. Conflict with Cochise.
Apaches Raid During Civil War
Troops leave for civil war. Apaches raid southern Arizona. General orders all Apaches killed.
Arizona’s First Capital
Arizona Territory created. Officers sworn in at Navajo Springs in east-central Arizona. Americans attack Apaches.
Bloody Tanks, Wheatfields
The massacre of Apaches by Arizona irregulars. Plan for removal of Apaches. Peace conference. Solomon Barth loses his clothes.
Government Plans to Remove Apaches
Plans to move Apaches to New Mexico. Peace conferences. More massacres.
Cooley Saves White Mountain Apaches
Chief Miguel makes peace. Corydon Cooley, later famous Indian scout, enters area and saves White Mountain Apaches from soldiers.
Fort Apache Established and the Camp Grant Massacre
Maj. Green sets up Fort Apache. Camp Grant Massacre shocks nation. Peace commissioners. Fate of the children.
Apache Reservation Established
President Grant creates Apache reservation, modifies the boundaries many times.
Spanish-Speakers, Sheep and Supplies for the Fort
Hispanic sheepherders come to Arizona, settle Concho. Squatters. Nathan Bibo opens trade route to Fort Apache. Apache women cut hay with butcher knives.
Life at Fort Apache
Renegades. tiswin drunks. Bibo becomes post trader. Martha Summerhayes memories. Mediation with Geronimo. Breakouts. Massacres of Indians.
Walter Reed, Fort Apache’s Famous Doctor
Early life. Post doctor at Fort Apache. Solving yellow fever.
Sol Barth and the Settlement of St. Johns
Barth comes west with Mormon handcart company, obtains military supply contract, creates huge wagon trains from Dodge City to Fort Apache, settles St. Johns.
Cattle Culture Arrives from Texas
Slaughter family brings cattle from Texas, Hispanics and Cowboys shoot it out, railroads arrive.
Anglos Move Into East-Central Arizona
Union scout comes to Springerville. Milligan’s Fort. Gustav and Julius Becker set up store, trade routes. Early homesteaders.
Gen. Crook Takes Command
Ultimatum to Apaches, Recruiting of army Ssouts from White Mountain Apaches, Campaign against the Pinalenos, fight at the cave, battle at Turret Peak, Apache success with farming, Chappo’s two heads.
Pre-Mormon Settlers of Snowflake
Whites began to notice Silver Creek Valley. Stinson brings cattle to army, establishes ranch. Nutrioso, Alpine, Lakeside. Early homestead claims.
Struggle with Apache Continues
Renegades break out. Crook demands heads. Relocation to San Carlos fails. Forestdale conflict. Tom Horn, Micky Free join campaign.
The Real Story of the Naming of “Show Low”
Nathan Bibo pressed into service to take military dispatch to Prescott, passes through area Apaches call “Sho-Lowh.” Corydon Cooley marries two Apache women, creates ranch on future townsite. Cooley’s famous story of the “Show Low” card game. The real story of the breakup of his partnerships. Cavalry wife Martha Summerhayes visits.
Geronimo Becomes Leader
Geronimo becomes leader of hostile Apaches. His childhood. Lozen, the woman warrior. Geronimo breaks out. Peace conference in Mexico. Return to the reservation. Death of Sterling. Another breakout. Trouble with Mexican troops.
Mormons Arrive in Arizona
Communists in the “United Order.” Visits to Hopi mesas. Lee’s Ferry. Lee’s bloody history. Early Little Colorado colonies. Descriptions of the now abandoned settlements. Dam washouts.
Mormons Arrive in White Mountains
Wagon train to Springerville. William Flake leads settlement of Snowflake. Jim Pearce settles Taylor. Life was hard. More settlements. Early schools.
Struggle for St. Johns
Mormons buy from Barth. Disputes with Hispanics. “Lot jumping” riots. Anti-Mormon sentiments. Mormons bring reinforcements.
Joseph Smith’s secret wives. Sociology. Lonely men. Obeying the church. Positive views from women and children. Heart-ache and conflict. Prosecutions. Escapes to Mexico. Undercover reporter exposes Mormon “secrets.” Political controversy, disenfranchisement. Arrest and trial of local leaders. Prison. Mitt Romney’s great-grandfather skips bail. Mormons agree to drop doctrine. Holdouts.
Mormons Move Deeper into Mountains
Pinedale settled as logging camp. Alpine and Greer become Mormon. Successful irrigation dams built. Concho, Hunt and Vernon get Mormon settlers. Irrigation and the Mormon economy. The brief-lived community of Adair. Mormon forts. Lone Pine, Pinetop and Lakeside settled by Mormons. Early towns in the Heber area. Travel back to Utah.
Mormon Conflict with Apaches
Hatch’s experience. The Nathan Robinson murder and aftermath. Alchesay kills rival chief in brawl near Show Low.
The medicine man. Soldiers go to Cibecue. The killing of the prophet. Attacks on soldiers. Fight at Chevlon Canyon. Apaches head to Mexico. Geronimo’s side of the story. Pursuit into Mexico. Death of Crawford. Geronimo talks peace again.
The Chiricahua Break Out Again
Dispute over treatment of wives. Drinking. Breakout. Pursuit. Heliographs. Buffalo soldiers. Trouble with Mexican troops. Crook meets with hostiles. Surrender.
Geronimo's Last Breakout
Influence of the Indian agents. Chirichuas break out again. The Apache Kid. Conflict with Mexican soldiers. Apaches raid back into U.S. Attack on Geronimo’s camp. Geronimo surrenders again, then flees.
Miles Takes Command
Apaches’ reign of terror. Attacks in southern Arizona. Gatewood reopens peace talks. Geronimo surrenders for last time. Apaches sent to Florida. Suffering and death. Crook tries to help prisoners.
More Outlaws Than a Thousand Movies
Outlaw Trail. Army cleans up Springerville. Murder of Jim Hale. Hubbell claims to kill 17 outlaws.
Pleasant Valley War Comes to the White Mountains
Thefts and abuse of local residents. Sheriff Commodore Perry Owens kills members of the Blevins gang. Aftermath. Escapes. End of Owens’ career.
O.K. Corral Comes to the Mountains
Background. Ike and Phin Clanton in Springerville. Undercover detective. The murder of a wealthy tenderfoot. Ike is killed. Phin goes to prison. Aftermath.
The Original ‘Ox-Bow Incident’
Buildup. Hanging of the three cowboys. James Houck’s role. Dispute about their innocence. Aftermath.
A Passel of Outlaw Trouble
Brighton’s further adventures. Climax Jim’s escapades. Mail robberies. More murders.
Tragedy Strikes Snowflake
Bankrobber arrives. Flake brothers try to make arrest. Charles Flake killed.
Wild Bunch and the White Mountains
The Gang. Ties to Hole in the Wall, Ketchum, Smith Gangs. Butch Cassidy and Sundance Kid working on ranch in area. Highly regarded as ranch hands.
The posse trails outlaws. All but two boys give up. The boys murdered. Unsuccessful search for the killers. The formation of the Arizona Rangers.
Hashknife Outfit Brings Trouble
Cowboys and cattle arrive by rail. Rustlers. Conflict with sheepmen. Burt Mossman becomes foreman. Conflict with Mormons. Will Barnes takes a dim view of Hashknife.
Hard Times for Cattlemen
Local cowboys win at early rodeo. More conflict with sheep men. Drought depresses prices. Rustling increases. Sheep prosper while range suffers.
St. Johns Develops a Political Ring
Disputes over county seat. Falsifying county IOUs. Plot to defraud the railroad. Phony robbery of county courthouse. Imprisonment and pardon of Sol Barth.
Expansion of White Mountain Towns
Population brings mail service. Early land surveys. Mormons not welcome in Holbrook. Lakeside expansion. More dam washouts. Hard times. Title disputes with railroad.
Plagues and Early Medicine
Smallpox, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, typhoid. 100 children die in St. Johns epidemic. Father gives up life to care for dying boy, while mother stays away to raise surviving children. Christmas death in Alpine. First doctor had to teach school to support family. A little plague humor in Snowflake.
Gold In Them Thar Hills, or Not
The legend of the Adams Digging. Doc Thorne mine. Ties to the Lost Dutchman. Gold fever in Taylor. Pinetop’s Gold Rush.
Mormons Prosper at End of 19th Century
Prosperity. Creation of Navajo County. Freighting to Fort Apache.
Conflicts with settlers. Bringing in the Mormon sawmill. Creation of the National Forests. The first forest ranger. Fighting fires. Apaches join the fire lines.
Indians at the End of the Century
Late clash with Navajos. Disease claims Apaches in Florida. Transfer to Oklahoma. Geronimo’s final years. Death of Lozen.
Meanwhile, Back at the Fort
Adjusting to reservation life. Infighting between Indian agents and military. Starvation rations. Schools. Clothing. R-14’s cattle empire. Lutheran missionaries.
Early life. The Kid’s depredations, including kidnapping Apache women. Dies in Mexico. Or maybe not.
Lost Children at Start of 20th Century
Ringing in the new century. Boy is lost and found. 7-year-old girl lost in forest. Community looks for her for 19 days. Body found.
Economy, Agriculture and Dam Failure
Promotional brochures. Lyman Lake dam breaks and floods St. Johns. Deaths. Aftermath.
Mormons Buy Show Low
Purchase from Huning. Water rights. Early dams.
Forest and Timber Industry in New Century
Disputes with squatters. Grazing regulations. Conservationist Aldo Leopold develops his theories in the White Mountains. Horse slaughter. Founding of Apache Railroad, new mill. Community of Standard. James G. McNary. Blacks come from Louisiana. Segregation in McNary.
Elk and Wolves Return
Re-introduction of elk. Wolves also return. Cougars remain.
Early 20th Century Medicine
Death of first doctor. Scarlet fever. Flu kills many whites, worse on reservation. Typhoid. Early hospitals.
Last Hurrah for Sheep
Seasonal migration from Valley. Scott brothers. Cutting ice on Rainbow Lake.
Outlaw Echoes of the Wild West in the 20th Century
Smith gang, a rump of the Daltons. Lawmen die at Battle Ground. Capture of the Smiths. Shooting death of Montie Slaughter and murder of former Sheriff Beeler. More Slaughter troubles. Last hurrah for an ex-Ranger. Manhunt for deserters wanted as murderers. Sullivan Gang imitates Bonnie and Clyde. The Ouija Board Killing.
New Communities, the Baptist Migration, Ghost Towns
Overgaard. Zeniff. Baptists found Burton, Plenty. Ghost Towns.
Modern Contraptions and Newfangled Ways
Telegraph. Telephones. Running water from the St. Louis World’s Fair. Automobiles. Local man outsmarts famed driver Barney Oldfield in car race. Electricity. Girl’s softball. Movies.
World War I
Local men drafted. Reporting to serve on 15-minute notice. Some do not come home.
Stage lines. First transcontinental auto crossing. Highways. Madonna of the Trail. Dude ranches. Famous restaurants and lodges. Health tourism.
World Famous Writers Work in White Mountains
Zane Grey. His romanticizing of the West in White Mountain settings. Local movies. Interaction with locals. The pioneer science fiction writer Edgar Rice Burroughs and the journey from White Mountains to the planet Mars. James Willard Schulz, another famous author, his local books and his lodge. His son, the artist Lone Wolf.
The Fort Closes, Slowing Economy in the 1920s
Fort closes, ending freighting business. Execution of Horn. Bank failures. Cattlemen wiped out. Self-reliance in St. Johns.
Apaches in the 20th Century
Guenthers arrive as missionaries. Catholics compete for Apache souls. Dress. Enter wage economy. Sunrise ceremony.
Stresses Produce New Apache Religious Movements
Loss of rations, plagues, natural disasters, methods of survival and harsh restrictions on traditional customs. Native religious revivals. Followers decapitate religious leader who fails to rise on third day. The P-1, P-6 cult. Silas John Edwards, the “Apache Jesus,” arrested for murder of wife. Freed with help of mystery writer Earl Stanley Gardner. Religions rights, citizenship and eventually the vote.
Apaches survive deep in the Sierra Madre. Conflict with the Fimbres family. Goodwin looks for them. Famous Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad finds evidence of lost Apaches.
The Udalls, St. Johns’ Political Dynasty
Early Udalls. Mo Udall’s childhood. Losing an eye. Stu Udall. National offices. Sons and nephews in the U.S. Senate
Depression Hits Slowly But Hard
Little effect immediately from stock market crash. Bank closings. The New Deal. CCC Camps. New Deal artists. A failed dam project. Things worse on the reservation. Former U of A President Cummings struggles to rebuild Mogollon pueblo as National Monument. Shutdown of the lumber mills. Bootlegging thrives. Homesteading revisited.
CCC boys and local men go to war. People, like naturalist Aldo Leopold, regret that the area is no longer exactly like it was when they first arrived